A term paper is one of the main parts of an upper-division course such as the one for which a book was probably assigned. Such term papers are the most common requirements of your final grade. So many students have never received proper instructions for writing a good research report. This article will guide you on how to go about your research and writing .
A question may come to your mind that why do instructors assign papers? The answer to this question may bring you a positive approach to writing the term papers yourself as well.
Two are the main good reasons for writing a term paper by yourself.
One reason relates to the specific subject of the course; the other reason is based on your professional development. The knowledge about the subject and the works your professional skill development as when you write a paper yourself you will start getting to know about that specific subject by yourself which really good for your professional skill. A professional skill such as typing skill, operating skills, and communication skills but communication skills is the main skill which creates a positive or negative impression.
Never underestimate the importance of communication skills. Most of the professional positions which are sought by the college students are based on finding information, analyze it, and convey the conclusions and recommendations to others, including their boss. You will be judged by your product. Through a survey about the reason for the rise of their most successful young subordinates compared to the failure or slow progress of other junior executives. Communications skills were one of the factors most mentioned by the top executives. Your smartness and other assets will be hidden unless your communications skills are well.
The improvement of your academic and professional work is actually based partly on its substantive quality. A powerfully written, well organized with well research data will definitely enhance your professional standing, whereas a poorly done report will obviously cast a shadow on your professional competency.
When you will start your professional career your boss will never compromise on your mistakes. So this is the right time to learn and build your professional skills as an instructor will be more helpful to you than your boss will ever be.
HOW TO START TERM PAPER WRITING
Get instruction. Your instructor or boss will definitely tell you about the topic on which he expects you to write, if in case you fail to understand what exactly he is expecting you to write then you better ask him again however if you think that asking again will make you look dumb in front of others then please get some sense as asking for supplementary instructions is far, far batter than doing a report that does not meet the needs of the topic you have been given by your instructor or boss.
Never depend on last-minute effort?
Good paperwork always needs time, try to make your report complete within the due date you have been given by your boss or instructor and if you think you can do great efforts at last minute then you should keep in mind that last-minute effort is like LAST-MINUTE effort! Allow time for the unexpected. Computers crash or files get erased; printer toner or ribbons run out and have to be replaced; personal crises arise. You need to be able to cope with these and still get the paper done on time.
Selection of a topic
If its your responsibility to choose a topic then choose the topic according to your interest level as it brings to your writing and data collect. The easier it will be for you to devote time and energy to studying it and writing about it. Be sure that the topic you are choosing would not create difficulties in finding about its data. Select a topic which is known to you.
It doesn’t matter how long or how small you write an essay or term paper the main thing is all you write should be to the point. As if you are supposed to write on THE WAR BETWEEN PAKISTAN AND INDIA so you should only write about the main issues of war not about their nowadays friendship behavior. All you write in the essay should be to the point.
If you are up to write a term paper about the history of RUSSIA AS SUPERPOWER AND THE REASON WHY IT’S NO MORE so might find some difficulties in searching about the real information on the internet because of some American policies. You should take holdings of your library into account. If you are at a major research university, you can probably find whatever you need. As your library holdings decrease, your ability to study unusual or narrow topics decrease as well. So be cared not to select such topic which destines you to fail.
Doing the research
This is the main basic part of your term paper. As strong as your research work is done as great results you’ll find for your term paper. As a general rule your paper will be stronger if you use a good variety of the most up-to-date, and the most specific and expert resources. It stands to reason that solid foundation will definitely build a strong paper.
Library: It’s the place to do search. You don’t need to worry if the library is vast and unfamiliar to you as you an always find an assistance to help you over there. You can always ask for help from librarian whenever you think that the hard list of book is confusing you, instead of just standing you can ask for help. This saves your time and efforts.
Research Strategies: It’s necessary to be creative whenever you do your research. Some tips are as follows.
Start it by reading a general study on your own subject. This could be really helpful to you. It will guide you that what is important and on what you need to focus your research. It will be a waste of time if we simply jump on big researches. Textbooks can also be useful. You can start by writing general details of our country such as, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS WITH OTHER COUNTRIES OR DOMESTIC RELATIONS.
Become a detective when you do your research. As if you are searching about the CARS, don’t just stick to C for the search of CARS try to search in different places such as; V for vehicles or T for TRANSPORT or P for PRIVATE TRANSPORT. This will bring you more research and will enhance your knowledge as well.
Look into recent articles. You should read newspapers and magazines to make your mentally vaster and better. You can easily find good material inside newspapers in the face of articles.
Photocopy important data. Photocopying the data will save of time and effort if you can afford it, photocopying is faster then writing or jotting notes on papers. This reduces the fear of mistakes as well. If you keep written notes with you. Keep the index card. Larger cards are better than smaller ones. We suggest you to keep cards as it works well because they can be arranged easily. Some people save them in computer as well, like laptops or pocket pc. If you do then you should save your data in some floppy, CD, or USB as well. Because you never know what could happen to your hard disk. Nowadays there are more facilities to save your data. You can upload or save your work in your internet spaces as well. As it’s more convenient and fast to search again.
Rechecking your search. Keep on checking carefully when you are doing your research that whatever material you need you are exactly copying it all. Later on we will cover why and how to cite material, but there is nothing more frustrating than having to go back to the library to look up and get messed in the rattle again. So you should note clearly and completely in the first time.
You will be surprised to see that your library contains so many research resources. You can go and see it by yourself that how many resources are there in your library. You can your librarian to help you out in seeking the resources. Following are some of them
Reference work. Reference room is one of the most important places of our library. By researching in this room you will definitely be saving your many hours. We would have mentioned you some of the other areas of library to start your search from but this is the place where you start. Suppose you are doing a course of American foreign policy, there are many sources in an reference room you can find about your course, you might wish to look at sources such as the most general level of political science or the DICTIONARY of American Diplomatic History(finding, 1989). Then there are resources such as Editorial Research Reports , the Political Handbook of the World , or the Index to International Public Opinion that deal with particular topics, give summaries of various governments, or take other specialized approaches. Such works are normally acceptable sources; general-purpose encyclopedias (such as the Encyclopedia Britannica , the World Book , etc.) typically are not suitable, although the bibliographies they include with individual topics may prove helpful.
Books: Books and loads of books you can find in the library. Use your library’s library computer access system or cards catalog for books on your subject. Its not so difficult to search for some specific books in the library but if in case you don’t have any idea that which books you should look into for your research you can take help from the librarian, as you can check in the reference room first. You can search for your books by the alphabetical order as well as in the Library of Congress system, most U. S. history is under the later E. for economics, look at H; for world history, and consult books under D. It’s good to have knowledge about all such alphabets as its very worthwhile specially at the time when you are about to do deep searches. The shelves in the reference room are partly arranged using the library f congress system.
Scholarly Journal Articles: You may find a topic to write on about the detail of PUBLIC AFFAIRS INFORMATION SERVICES, OR THE SOCIAL SCIENCES INDEX. You should consult journals even for no contemporary topics because you may found new information. You can find the journal articles in the reference room of your library.
Government Publications: You can gat help for your research through government publications, as you can get to know about the recent issues of your country by the TV channels. You may also find valuable information that has been published In a report of a government agency, in hearing or reports of a congressional committee, or in the transcript of the proceedings of Congress. There are several other sources are available. The monthly catalog of your country provides a comprehensive list of sources. You can see on TV channels different TALK SHOWS. These things could be so helpful to you if you are about to write about something for you country details.
Newsmagazines and News papers. Newsmagazines and news paper could be a very good source of searching things about your topics however be sure that before getting into any newsmagazine or news paper you should consult with your instructor that these are considered acceptable sources for your assignment pr not. Mostly they are useful facts or for contemporary quotes and are usually not good sources of analysis. News papers and newspaper could be taken by the advice of our librarian. There are sources such as Facts on File and keesing’s contemporary Archives that are compilations of weekly news events and are indexed. Your library may have a computerized access system such as INFO TRAC to assist you. The READER’S GUIDE TO PERIODICAL LITRATURE also helps access this material.
World Wide Web (WWW) Electronic Resources: From the past few years it has become so much easy to find research information by using the internet. Now most governmental and nongovernmental organizations, universities, and even much business have developed access to their research resources over the graphic environment on the World Wide Web.
Miscellaneous Sources: You can find miscellaneous sources inside your library, such as there may be an audio-visual section. There may be a map room. You can ask the librarian about the miscellaneous sources. If you are unable to find the thing you are looking for in our library you can ask you librarian to order such sources from other libraries through the interlibrary loan program. Ask you reference librarian to help you in this.
External Sources: Knowledge is not something confined in a library or campus. You can go outside and look for your research by asking the people you think that are capable of helping you in your term paper writings. Even if you don’t know someone personally, you might find it interesting and possible to conduct an interview with decision maker or with any relevant person which could be your sisters academy instructor or anyone.
Organize your Paper
Here comes the main part of your term paper. The keys to effective papers are good organization. If you don’t do good organization of your research then if it will be a little hard to understand properly for your boss or whomsoever it is concerned. Following are the three considered ways of organizing a paper.
Outline: It’s always good to start your with proper planning as if you start it good it will ends better and a bitterly started work ends the best. No one would think of building a house, a computer, or other important and complex project without a plan. Most of the students collect very good data from good source but they don’t know how to arrange it they just mix everything and present it to the instructors which is hardly to understand by the instructor and leave a very poor impression by his side to the instructor. So the best thing is to determine what you wish to accomplish in the paper, hen prepare an outline specifying every step from introduction to Conclusion. If you do good outline, it will keep you on track and the person who reads it feel easy and more understandable what you are trying to tell him. So do the correct outline and get better results.
Parts: All paper has three main parts in it. 1 . Introduction 2.Body 3. Conclusion well these parts make a paper complete. In the introduction you should tell about the topic on which you are writing, for example, you are writing about the RELATIONS BETWEEN AMERICA AND AUSTRALIA so in the introduction, you should be giving some details about AMERICA and AUSTRALIA then you can move on to the BODY and start the BODY part from a new paragraph so it look more decent. This will make it easier for the reader to understand. Keep in mind that the BODY part of your paper should maintain all the important information about the relationship of AMERICA AND AUSTRALIA. And the last part of a paper is the CONCLUSION. In the conclusion of any topic, a writer or a student has to sum up all the details given up in the body and introduction parts. There is something very usual in the human that he wants everything summed up so never leave your reader without conclusion.
Approach: This is the third issue in which students make so many mistakes. A student should always use the word YOU to approach his readers. Never beat around the bushes stick to your topic, don’t the make the reader to feel bore about your topic try to develop his interest in your work by using the approach of you. As if you are writing a term paper about the ECONOMIC SYSTEM OF YOUR COUNTRY maybe people feel boring of reader such paper usually people are now tired of hearing about the ECONOMIC SYSTEM OF THE COUNTRY, write it in such a manner that the reader found things about his interests in your paper, its not like if you are writing something about your economic system and just to create interest to go away from your main topic always stick to your topic and tell people that important is the subject is on which you have written something.
Writing the Paper
After the organization, the other main thing which actually matters in a good paper is clarity in writing. Always remember that if a paper fails to convey the exact message you want to tell your readers your research-no mater how good has impact. Someone had said that “write like you speak” well nothing could be as wrong as this thing. Good written communication is far more different than how we talk or speak as in the speaking we convey our message through our voice inflection, gestures, and other methods in addition to our words. These methods are not available in written communications. Therefore, choice of words, punctuation, and other considerations are particularly vital when you write. The following are the three main techniques which could be helpful to you in writing.
Effort: You could almost certainly leave your reader as bleary-eyed when he or she reads the paper as you were when you wrote it. And this could always happen with efforts, as more you put your efforts in your work more the results will be better for you. Thomas Alva Edison once supposedly commented that “Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration” that is true whether one is inventing the computer or creating an essay, a report, or a book. Effortless work is worse than no work. Two things could bring more effort into your paper to write drafts and to get others to read your paper.
We hope this article helps you to cope with your term paper. From the next article, you will learn how to write an annotated bibliography.